# METHODS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS: Inductive-Deductive method

Inductive-Deductive method: It is a combination of two methods.

Inductive Method:

It leads from concrete to abstract, particular to general and from example to formula.

Procedure: First do lots of example, and then generalize the formula.

Example: Ask students to draw a few sets of parallel lines and let them measure the alternate angle.

Ask student to construct the few triangles. Let them measure the sum of the angles and draw conclusion.

Merits of Inductive Method

By making use of this method, following merits get accrue to the students as well as to teacher:

1. As this is a scientific method, thus it helps to considerable extent in developing scientific outlook among the students.
2. This method helps to develop scientific attitude among the students.
3. With the help of this method, teacher can develop qualities of critical thinking and habit of keen observation among the students properly and accurately.
4. This is a very logical and psychological kind of teaching science.
5. By this method, students get various opportunities to play an active role in learning process.

Demerits of Inductive Method

This method has certain limitations, some of which are as follows:

1. The results or conclusions drawn from such method are not found to be final in case where the amount of data is very large in number.
2. All the topics of science cannot be dealt with this method properly.
3. This method can only be used when teacher have much time for teaching process.

Deductive method:

Opposite of inductive method. Here, the learner proceeds from general to particular, abstract to concrete and from formula to examples.

Procedure: immediately after announcing the topic for the day, the teacher gives the relevant formula and solves some problem related to formula. The student understands how the formula can be used or applies. Then few problems are given to the student to solve by themselves.

Example: Facts like sum of the angle is 1800 and solve the problem related to given facts.

Formula like area of rectangle = Length x Breadth and solve problem related to given formula.

Merits

(1) This method is short and time-saving. The solution of the problems by pre-established formulas takes little time.

(2) It encourages memory as the students have to memories a considerable number of formulas.

(3) This method is advantageous at the “Practice and revision” stage.

(4) It enhances speed and efficiency in solving problems.

(5)This removes the incompleteness and inadequacy of Inductive method.

Demerits

(1) The beginners find it very difficult to understand an abstract formulas, if they are not acquainted with a number of concrete instances.

(2) This method will demand blind memorization of a large number of formulas. And this will cause an unnecessary and heavy burden on the brain of children.

(3) In this method, memory becomes more important than understanding and intelligence and that is educationally unsound.

(4) Blind cramming leads very often to forgetting the formulas and the children are at a loss to recollect. This ultimately leads to no learning

(5) This method is not suitable for development of thinking, reasoning and discovery.

Conclusion: we can conclude that inductive method is the forerunner of deductive method. The deductive method will give a good follow up, if the topic is understand through induction. thus the teaching must begin with induction and end in deduction.

Source: The Teaching of mathematics by KULBIR SINGH SIDHU (Sterling Publisher Pvt Ltd)