ART EDUCATION (VISUAL ART & PERFORMING ART)
RATIONALE: Art education constitutes an important area of curricular activity for the development of the wholesome personality of the learners. Art is a process of fulfillment running through every aspect of life and it goes on in a creative, productive and joyful manner. Art education helps to explore various means of communication (verbal and non-verbal). It encourages to develop creative expression and sharpens senses through keen observation of the environment. It helps to discover preferences through exposition to variety of material and identify the personal form and style of expression. It develops awareness of various art forms in and around the environment and locality and develops skills in the use of various tools, instruments and other art materials in the process of experimentation and exploration. In the process of discovering space, organization, colours, forms, lines, texture, movement, sound etc., learners develop a sense of organization and a sense of design which inculcates in them a sense of order with regard to their personal appearance, home, school and community. It also develops aesthetic sensibilities and respect for social values and cultural heritage. The idea of creative art involves all the elements of commonly known art forms-visual,performing and language arts, namely music, dance, drama, drawing and painting, modelling and sculpture, or construction work, pottery and ceramic work,poetry and creative writing and other art connected craft forms.
OBJECTIVES : The objectives of art education are to : help the student to consolidate past experiences and knowledge; introduce the student to new media and techniques and their use for creative expression and for making objects of common use; provide opportunities for the development of awareness about folk arts, local specific arts and other cultural components leading to an awareness and appreciation of national heritage; help the student to use artistic and aesthetic sensibility in day-to-day life situation; help the student to achieve a balanced growth as a social being in tune with our culture through projects on natural and cultural heritage etc; get acquainted with the life and work of the local artists/artistes; develop creative expression through locally available material with the help of the community; refine the sense of appreciation of the beauty of nature and the basic elements of art forms;
APPROACH TO ART ACTIVITIES : At the secondary stage, art education is closer to the local folk art and craft and folk theater. Art is not only to always blindly copy the old masters or copying the teacher’s work in a rigid manner but to help learners express themselves in creative and imaginative ways. Creative arts cannot be a substitute of Work Education under which a few artistic activities may be conducted but the approach and product would be different. In the interest of the learner, as far as possible, all the media of creative arts may be placed before the students for their choice of selection in one form of art or in a combination of art forms.
These are :
- VISUAL ARTS Two-dimensional or Pictorial
- Drawing and Painting
- Collage Making
- Printing Making
- Computer graphics (Wherever possible)
- – Clay modelling and pottery
- – Carving and sculpture
- – Construction
Music (Vocal, Instrumental)
Movement and Dance
Creative Drama and Puppetry
Creative Writing and Poetry
SOURCES FOR ART TEACHING
The arts programme in schools must reflect the ethos of the region. Artistic expression in music, poetry, dance theater and in the creation of forms have been part of human life from the very beginning. It is not something new and strange – it is an integral part of human existence. Exposure
to the local environment and arts in an essential activity of the school art programme.
Besides individual expression, the arts provide an opportunity to study and appreciate the contributions made in the past and present. By learning to appreciate music, painting, dance and theater, one develops aesthetic sensibility and sensitivity to a better understanding of people belonging
to other cultures. We can build a harmonious society, a productive nation or world itself with a deep sense of appreciation. For this, it would be necessary that the arts programme in school makes the child familiar with the tradition of arts of the region. From the strength and confidence gained from the familiar, it will be possible for him/her to respect and appreciate the culture and contribution made by others.
It is not always the sophisticated materials and expertise resources which matter for some sort of creative programme in schools—it is the understanding of the approach to the creative arts (for which the skills develop automatically) and the satisfaction of working and playing with children
are of utmost importance. Locally available material can be used for creative expression. Help of the experts from the community can be taken.
A. VISUAL ARTS
When the school(s) can provide art teachers in different media the following syllabus may be adopted. Activities in Terms of Materials/Media and Techniques
Two-dimensional or Pictorial Activities
Study of visual resources and means of creative expression
– Study of lines, strokes, colours, shades, tones, textures, etc, while organizing two dimensional space with two dimensional and three dimensional shapes and forms.
– Sketching from nature and surrounding.
– Creative use of colours to show space, atmosphere, subjective moods
– Creative use of perspective in spatial relationship.
– Study of calligraphic strokes of Devnagari and Roman alphabet (Scripts)
– Use of contrast as an expressive element of art.
– Study and use of various media and techniques to the extent of their availability.
– Pencil, charcoal, water colour, crayon, oil colours, poster colour and gouache, acrylic colour and other unconventional sources of colours such as vermillion, yellow and red earth, rice flour, and tools like painting brushes for water colours and oil colours, Painting surfaces such as papers of various kinds and quality, like smooth, rough, thick, thin, etc, canvas, hardboard, simple marking cloth pasted on paper, etc., – Collage and mosaic work with a variety of coloured papers and coloured printed pictures/ photographs from magazines and newspapers.
– Print Making : Mono printing, Printing with wood-cut blocks, lino-cut and metal foil : serigraphy (silk screen), self-made stencil etc.
– Basic knowledge of computer graphics (wherever possible)
Three-dimensional or sculptural activities
Study of basic forms in clay
– Study of various materials such as clay, plaster of pairs, soft-stone, wood. (blocks, twigs and branches, roots, etc.,) metal scraps, plastic sheets, wire thread, papers and card boards, vegetables and other throw-away available materials.
– Study of natural and man-made forms, human figures, birds, animals, vegetation and other objects like household items, buildings or as desired by the students.
– Objects of day-to-day use in groups and in different settings and arrangements;
Assignments in two and three-dimensional subjective forms and utility and functional art and craft forms in different media and techniques. Painting, murals, graphics, clay modelling, woodcarving, soft-stone, plaster of pairs, block of brick constructions, collage mobiles, applique, pottery
and ceramics, masks, and puppets, textile designing (including tie-dye and batik, and block printing) poster designing, lay-out illustrations and photography etc.,
Correlating Art Activities with Other School Activities
Construction of puppets and then costumes and improvised puppet stage or theater, correlation with Home Science and Arts (Drama) subjects;
Aesthetic organization of the physical environment by enhancing the surrounding land i.e. landscaping including plantation of trees and other flowering plants and vegetables, etc. correlating with Agriculture, Home Science and Environment Studies activities.
Constructing stage setting props such as curtain, backdrops, stage lighting improvised furniture sets, etc., designing utility (crafts) items; correlating with Work Education activities.
Designing the school magazine and bulletin boards, making posters for school functions, and greeting/invitation cards, stage scenes for music, dance, drama performances, etc., correlating with applied Art activities.
Note : These activities and other group activities may emerge in project form at individual levels also.
Organization, display and exhibitions of students’ periodical and sessional work.
Organizing inter school art exhibitions to widen their interaction and horizon.
Planning and organizing festivals and celebrations of the community, cultural evenings, musical concerts, film shows and other performances including regional and folk (traditional art forms).
Participating in study visits to museums, botanical gardens, zoological garden, and art galleries and art institutions, etc., for greater awareness of the environment and cultural variations.
Theoretical Understanding of Art and Culture
Short notes on important aspects of Indian art and culture based on social studies. Such writing may be based on reproductions of art work printed in Textbooks.
Contribution made by any one contemporary artist.
Knowledge of terms : Contour, texture, graphic, form, volume, space, tone, printmaking, collage, amature, modelling in relief, Mobil construction, applique, calligraphy, layout, poster and composition.
- PERFORMING ART
– Knowledge of the terms: Sangeet, Nad, Swar, Shudh, Komal, Teevra, Saptak, Mandra, Madhya Tar, Aroha Avaroha, Raga, Laya, Matra, Tal, Avartan, Sam Tal.
– Knowledge of notations systems as laid down by Pt. Vishnu Digamber Paluskar, Pt. Vishnu Narain Bhatkhande and Purandar Dasa.
– Outline history of music.
– National Anthem
– Fifteen songs for community signing
– Five folk or tribal songs of different regions, indicating time of the year, occasion and the function with which they are related. Writing down the same with its meaning and knowledge of its rhythm.
– Five devotional songs, Bhajans from the saint-poets of India.
– Three songs in regional languages other than mother tongue, including one Tagore song.
– Three patriotic songs or on the theme of universal love and amity.
To create proper sense of swara and laya through Talabadh and Alankaras.
Introduction to the structure of any four of the following ragas with details : Yaman, Kafi, Khamaj, Bhopali, Nattai, Kalyani, Saveri, Todi (accompainment of Tanpura and Tabla or Mrudang). The Teacher should communicate the characteristic features of the raga and its swaras patterned in such a way that the students will be able to recognize the qualities of the raga and the part played by different swaras.
The following tals and their thekas-kaharva, Dadra, Trital, Jhaptal, Choutal, Alankar Talas.
To collect photographs of great musicians, with a write-up on their introduction, and all types of musical instruments (photographs/illustrations) and the artists who play them. (To be pasted in the scrap-book).
To listen to music programme on Radio or T.V. and to write short description of the performances (To be written in the scrap-book).
Music (Melodic Instrument)
– Knowledge of the terms : Sangeet, Dhwani, Nad, Swar, (Shudha, Komal, Teevra) Saptak (Mandra, Madhya, Tar) Aroha, Avaroha, Raga, Gat, Laya Matra, Tal, Avartan, Sam Tal, Khali, Laghu Dhrutham, Anu Dhrutham.
– Knowledge of notations system as laid down by Pt. Vishnu Narain Bhatkhande, Pt. Vishnu Digambar Paluskar and Purandar Dasa.
– Short notes on at least for musical instruments, their main components and the characteristics of the sound (music) they produce.
– Tuning and playing of any one of the following instruments: Sitar, Sarod, Violin, Dilruba or Esraj, Flute, Jaltarang, Mandolin, Guitar (accompaniment of Tabla).
The candidates playing musical instruments may be allowed to opt for community singing or for instrumental assemble based either on the ragas from the syllabus or light and folk dhun (Melodies).
To create proper sense of swaras and layas through Talabadh Alankaras.
The following ragas with descriptive details : Yaman, Khamaj, Kafi, Bhopali, Nattai, Kalyani, Todi, Saveri (acompainment of Tanpura and Tabla).
The following five talas and their thekas : Kaharva, Dadra, Trital, Jhaptal, Choutal.
This is the stage at which young people are to be introduced to theater and related crafts to broaden their understanding of drama through literature. Their previous experience of creative drama will help in exploring the area as under:
– Knowledge of the terms: Mime, play script, movement, characterization, stage, stage props, stage costumes, stage movements, stage lighting, one-act play, etc.
– Warming-up freeing activity in rhythmic movement and pantomime.
– Exercises in characterization.
– Exercises in speech dialogue delivery.
– Excercises in creation of plot and conflict based on: (i) episodes and happenings in dayto-day life situations: (ii) episodes from stories from textbooks or story books; (iii) short scenes from classical dramas.
Stage Craft :
planning a stage with props and lighting placement, movement of character of a given play in drawing form or model form :
designing of costumes for the characters of the play.
– Play-writing: unscripted play to be written down in the form of a script to be acted.
Note : Formal performance before an audience can be an incentive to good work at this stage.
Hints for the Teachers
Students should be encouraged to work individually as well as in small groups, with girls and boys working together.
Learners should be encouraged to enquire about the technique, procedures and the work of master artists/artistes.
Students should be encouraged and helped in handling new media and tools and meeting the new challenges in various problem-solving situations encountered by them.
Students should be encouraged to take the initiative and to critically evaluate their work.
Since the adolescent child is prone to adult influence, adult activities and methods working, he starts imitating and idealizing the adult approach and attitude to his work.
The teacher, at this stage, should try to make the adolescent child aware of the originality and uniqueness of his/ her own work and encourage him/her to develop his/her own methods and style of working as there exists a large variety and divergence in adults’ work.
The teacher should develop friendly and sympathetic relations with his students and should encourage them to know about the artistic activities of the local community.
The teacher should organize studio/art room/theater/stage with the help of students.
The teacher should organize visits of museums, historical places, exhibitions, botanical and zoological gardens, theater and local drama activities, music and dance concerts, film shows, etc.
The teacher should help children in the planning and organization of display and exhibitions, musical and other performances of master artists/artistes.
The teacher should develop projects correlating art activities with other subjects with the cooperation of other subject teachers.
The teacher should encourage the use of improvised instruments and tools by the students locally available.
The teaching approach should be inductive and students should be encouraged to mobilize their own resources to solve their problems. Direct instructions in the techniques should be avoided. They should be encouraged to develop techniques and styles of their own through exploration of discovery of materials, media, tools and techniques.